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Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1996 Oct-Dec;31(4):331-7.

Richard L. Solomon and learned helplessness.

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  • 1Center for Research in Learning Perception and Cognition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA.


This article reviews the course of development of research on a currently popular explanatory approach to dysfunctional behavior, the learned helplessness analysis. The early history is prominent in this review as it reflects the inspirations of Richard L. Solomon, a scholar who fostered the resurgence of psychologists' interests in Pavlovian conditioning in the 1950s and 1960s. Current research is characterized as having four separate themes: elaboration of "symptoms," elucidating the role of fear, explicit modeling, and extensions involving attributional constructs.

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