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EMBO J. 1996 Dec 2;15(23):6541-51.

Mechanism of activation of protein kinase B by insulin and IGF-1.

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  • 1MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, UK.


Insulin activated endogenous protein kinase B alpha (also known as RAC/Akt kinase) activity 12-fold in L6 myotubes, while after transfection into 293 cells PKBalpha was activated 20- and 50-fold in response to insulin and IGF-1 respectively. In both cells, the activation of PKBalpha was accompanied by its phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 and, like activation, phosphorylation of both of these residues was prevented by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Thr308 and/or Ser473 were mutated to Ala or Asp and activities of mutant PKBalpha molecules were analysed after transfection into 293 cells. The activity of wild-type and mutant PKBalpha was also measured in vitro after stoichiometric phosphorylation of Ser473 by MAPKAP kinase-2. These experiments demonstrated that activation of PKBalpha by insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) results from phosphorylation of both Thr308 and Ser473, that phosphorylation of both residues is critical to generate a high level of PKBalpha activity and that the phosphorylation of Thr308 in vivo is not dependent on phosphorylation of Ser473 or vice versa. We propose a model whereby PKBalpha becomes phosphorylated and activated in insulin/IGF-1-stimulated cells by an upstream kinase(s).

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