Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32529-37.

Hypoxia response elements in the aldolase A, enolase 1, and lactate dehydrogenase A gene promoters contain essential binding sites for hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

Author information

  • 1Center for Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287-3914, USA. gsemenza@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu

Abstract

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor which is expressed when mammalian cells are subjected to hypoxia and which activates transcription of genes encoding erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and other proteins that are important for maintaining oxygen homeostasis. Previous studies have provided indirect evidence that HIF-1 also regulates transcription of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes. In this paper we characterize hypoxia response elements in the promoters of the ALDA, ENO1, and Ldha genes. We demonstrate that HIF-1 plays an essential role in activating transcription via these elements and show that although absolutely necessary, the presence of a HIF-1 binding site alone is not sufficient to mediate transcriptional responses to hypoxia. Analysis of hypoxia response elements in the ENO1 and Ldha gene promoters revealed that each contains two functionally-essential HIF-1 sites arranged as direct and inverted repeats, respectively. Our data establish that functional hypoxia-response elements consist of a pair of contiguous transcription factor binding sites at least one of which contains the core sequence 5'-RCGTG-3' and is recognized by HIF-1. These results provide further evidence that the coordinate transcriptional activation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes which occurs in hypoxic cells is mediated by HIF-1.

PMID:
8955077
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk