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J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Dec;15(6):592-601.

Effect of diet and moderate exercise on central obesity and associated disturbances, myocardial infarction and mortality in patients with and without coronary artery disease.

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  • 1Heart Research Laboratory, Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad, India.



To test whether a fat modified and fruit and vegetable enriched diet in conjunction with moderate physical activity reduces the cardiac event rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors in an urban setting in India.


480 patients either with CAD or with risk factors. Those with definite or possible CAD including angina pectoris (n = 210) based on World Health Organization criteria and patients with risk factors were assigned to diet A (n = 231) or diet B (n = 232) for a period of 3 years. Both groups were advised to follow a fat modified diet. Group A was also advised to consume at least 400 g/day of fruits, vegetables and legumes according to World Health Organization advice and include moderate physical activity.


Waist-hip ratios, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, blood pressure and weight fell significantly in patients in group A compared with those in group B. While triglycerides in group A showed a significant decrease, high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a significant increase. Both groups showed a significant reduction in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, although the decrease was greater in group A than group B. Central obesity decreased by 6.2% in group A vs. 1.2% in group B, 95% confidence interval of difference 2.3 to 7.8. The incidence of cardiac events was significantly lower in group A than group B (29 vs. 43 patients, p < 0.01). All-cause mortality also significantly declined in group A compared with group B (16 vs. 24 died, p < 0.05). The group A patients with better adherence to exercise and diet showed greater reduction in central obesity and greater decline in cardiac event rates and total mortality compared to control group B.


It is possible that moderate physical activity in conjunction with dietary changes in patients with CAD may cause substantial reductions in central obesity and associated disturbances corresponding to a significant decrease in cardiac events and mortality during the follow-up of 3 years.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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