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Transplantation. 1996 Oct 27;62(8):1076-80.

Treatment of hepatic venoocclusive disease with recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator or orthotopic liver transplantation after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

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  • 1Department of Transplantation Surgery, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.


Ten allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients with hepatic venoocclusive disease (VOD) were treated with recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Two of them subsequently underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). One additional patient with VOD underwent OLT without prior rt-PA treatment. Treatment with rt-PA was started a median of 14 (1--35) days after BMT. The dose of rt-PA given to adults was 10-50 mg i.v. and that given to children was 3-10 mg i.v. Treatment was given for 2-4 days. In three patients, the dose was administered over a longer period or it was repeated. Four patients responded to rt-PA therapy and six did not. Eight patients suffered from hemorrhages, one intracranial and three gastrointestinal. Four patients required blood transfusions. Four had minor subcutaneous hemorrhages and/or epistaxis. One patient died of intracranial hemorrhage and five from hepatic and/or multiorgan failure. Two patients treated with rt-PA, 10 mg/day for 4 days, are alive; one is alive and well 3 months after BMT, the other has relapsed after 7 months. The three patients undergoing OLT died of chronic hepatic failure, cerebral edema, and pneumonia. Our experience suggests that rt-PA should not be administered in high doses and that the treatment should not be given over a longer period, because of the risk of severe hemorrhages.

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