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Environ Manage. 1996 Nov;20(6):879-86.

Adaptive Management for Sound Ecosystem Management

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  • 1College of Natural ResourcesUniversity of Wisconsin-Stevens PointStevens Point, Wisconsin 54481, USA


/ Sound ecosystem management meshes socioeconomic attitudes and values with sustainable natural resource practices. Adaptive management is a model for guiding natural resource managers in this process. Ecosystems and the societies that use them are continually evolving. Therefore, managers must be flexible and adaptable in the face of uncertainty and lack of knowledge. To couple good science to management, it is important to develop goals, models, and hypotheses that allow us to systematically learn as we manage. Goals and models guide the development and implementation of management practices. The need to evaluate models and test hypotheses mandates monitoring, which feeds into a continuous cycle of goal and model reformulation. This paper reviews the process of adaptive management and describes how it is being applied to oak/pine savanna restoration at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge as an illustration. Our aim is to help managers design their own adaptive management models for successful ecosystem management.KEY WORDS: Adaptive management; Ecosystem management; Monitoring; Restoration; Savanna

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