Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Brain Res. 1996 Sep 2;732(1-2):1-15.

Evidence for divergent projections to the brain noradrenergic system and the spinal parasympathetic system from Barrington's nucleus.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19102-1192, USA. valentinor@hal.hahnemann.edu


The present study was designed to determine whether Barrington's nucleus, which lies ventromedial to the locus coeruleus (LC) and projects to the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, is a source of afferent projections to the LC. Restricted injections of the anterograde tracer, biocytin, into Barrington's nucleus labeled varicose fibers that extended from the injection site into the LC. Consistent with this, injections of the retrograde tracers, wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase coupled to gold particles (WGA-Au-HRP) or fluorescein-conjugated latex beads, into the LC labeled numerous (approximately 10%) Barrington's neurons that were also retrogradely labeled by Fluoro-Gold (FG) injections in the spinal cord. Retrograde tracing from the LC combined with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) immunohistochemistry revealed that at least one third of the retrogradely labeled neurons in Barrington's nucleus were CRH-immunoreactive (CRH-IR). Finally, in triple labeling studies, CRH-Barrington's neurons were consistently observed that were retrogradely labeled from both the and spinal cord. These findings implicate Barrington's nucleus as an LC afferent and a source of CRH-IR fibers in the LC. Additionally, the results suggest that some Barrington's neurons diverge to innervate both the spinal cord and the LC. This divergent innervation may serve to coregulate the sacral parasympathetic nervous system and brain noradrenergic system, thus providing a mechanism for coordinating pelvic visceral functions with forebrain activity.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk