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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 Oct;40(10):2262-5.

Pharmacokinetics of a water-soluble fullerene in rats.

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  • 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA.


Fullerenes are the recently discovered third allotropic form of carbon. The biological activities of these compounds are being studied for various purposes. The bis(monosuccinimide) derivative of p p'-bis(2-amino-ethyl)-diphenyl-C60 (MSAD-C60) is a water-soluble fullerene derivative. MSAD-C60 has been shown to have antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro and to have virucidal and anti-human immunodeficiency virus protease activities. Moreover, MSAD-C60 has been shown to be well tolerated in mice after intraperitoneal administration. The purpose of the present study was to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical methodology for MSAD-C60 and to characterize the preclinical pharmacokinetics of the compound in rats. Following intravenous administration of the fullerene derivative at a dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight, the concentrations of MSAD-C60 in plasma declined either bi- or triexponentially. The mean terminal-phase half-life of MSAD-C60 was 6.8 +/- 1.1 h (mean +/- standard deviation). Binding studies indicated that the compound is greater than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The average total clearance of the compound was 0.19 +/- 0.06 liter/h/kg. Urine samples obtained 24 h after intravenous administration did not contain detectable levels of the compound, indicating the absence of a significant renal clearance mechanism. The steady-state volume of distribution of MSAD-C60 averaged 2.1 +/- 0.8 liters/kg, indicating that the compound distributes into tissues. At a dose of 15 mg/kg, MSAD-C60 appeared to be well tolerated. However, a dose of 25 mg/kg resulted in shortness of breath and violent movement of the rats, followed by death within 5 min of dosing. Further controlled toxicity studies are needed to fully evaluate the toxicity of the compound.

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