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Pediatr Clin North Am. 1996 Oct;43(5):1113-33.

Congenital disorders of the hand and upper extremity.

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  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.


This article summarizes normal formation and growth of the upper limb as a basis for understanding malformation. Shoulder anomalies, including Sprengel's undescended scapula, clavicle pseudarthrosis, cleidocraniodystostosis, and Poland's syndrome, are presented. Classification and examples of limb malformations are discussed as well as neuromuscular disorders, such as obstetric brachial plexopathy, cerebral palsy, and arthrogryposis. The author hopes that this article provides a basic understanding of the evaluation necessary for appropriate counseling and referrals for treatment of the child with hand and upper extremity congenital deformities.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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