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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 1;93(20):10891-6.

NOMAD: a versatile strategy for in vitro DNA manipulation applied to promoter analysis and vector design.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago 60607, USA.


Molecular analysis of complex modular structures, such as promoter regions or multi-domain proteins, often requires the creation of families of experimental DNA constructs having altered composition, order, or spacing of individual modules. Generally, creation of every individual construct of such a family uses a specific combination of restriction sites. However, convenient sites are not always available and the alternatives, such as chemical resynthesis of the experimental constructs or engineering of different restriction sites onto the ends of DNA fragments, are costly and time consuming. A general cloning strategy (nucleic acid ordered assembly with directionality, NOMAD; WWW resource locator http:@Lmb1.bios.uic.edu/NOMAD/NOMAD.htm l) is proposed that overcomes these limitations. Use of NOMAD ensures that the production of experimental constructs is no longer the rate-limiting step in applications that require combinatorial rearrangement of DNA fragments. NOMAD manipulates DNA fragments in the form of "modules" having a standardized cohesive end structure. Specially designed "assembly vectors" allow for sequential and directional insertion of any number of modules in an arbitrary predetermined order, using the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to cut DNA outside of their recognition sequences. Studies of regulatory regions in DNA, such as promoters, replication origins, and RNA processing signals, construction of chimeric proteins, and creation of new cloning vehicles, are among the applications that will benefit from using NOMAD.

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