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Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Feb;6(1):73-9.

The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene: a genetic risk factor in smoking.

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  • 1City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.


Of a group of 312 non-Hispanic Caucasians who smoked at least one pack per day, had unsuccessfully attempted to stop smoking, and were free of alcohol or other drug dependence, 48.7% carried the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene. This was significantly greater than the 25.9% prevalence in the 714 known non-Hispanic Caucasian controls without alcohol or drug abuse, p < 10(-8), and significantly greater than in a smaller set of our study controls. There was a significant, inverse relationship between the prevalence of the D2A1 allele and the age of onset of smoking, p = 0.02, and the maximum duration of time the smokers had been able to quit smoking on their own, p = 0.02. These results suggest the DRD2 gene is one of a multifactorial set of risk factors associated with smoking.

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