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Res Q Exerc Sport. 1996 Jun;67(2):228-38.

The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire: construct equivalence and mean differences across gender.

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  • 1Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, USA.


Research on achievement goal orientation in sport has relied primarily on traditional statistical methodology to examine group mean differences. Unfortunately, examination of the measurement model is generally ignored prior to means testing. This study reports an application of structural equation modeling (SEM) in testing measurement invariance and latent mean structure of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; Duda & Nicholls, 1989) using male and female college students. A confirmatory factor analysis for testing invariance revealed invariant measurement properties and factor structures across gender, indicating that task and ego orientation are similarly conceptualized by male and female students. Subsequent testing of latent mean structures, however, showed significant gender differences with respect to ego orientation, but no difference in task orientation. The SEM procedures used in the present study demonstrate additional construct validity and internal consistency reliability for the TEOSQ and, by confirming its factor structure, provide a sound psychometric basis for its continued use in substantive studies focusing on the comparison of achievement goal orientation across gender.

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