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Glia. 1996 Jun;17(2):160-8.

Evaluation of the importance of transamination versus deamination in astrocytic metabolism of [U-13C]glutamate.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Glutamate metabolism was studied in primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes to determine the significance of transamination for the oxidative metabolism of glutamate. Cultures were incubated with [U-13C]glutamate (0.5 mM) in the presence and absence of the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and in some cases with methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. Perchloric acid extracts of the cells as well as redissolved lyophilized incubation media were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify 13C-labeled metabolites. Additionally, biochemical analyses were performed to quantify amino acids, lactate, citrate, and ammonia. Glutamine released into the medium and intracellular glutamate were labeled uniformly to a large extent, but the C-3 position showed not only the expected apparent triplet but also a doublet due to 12C incorporation into the C-4 and C-5 positions. Incorporation of 12C into the C-4 and C-5 positions of glutamate and glutamine as well as labeling of lactate, citrate, malate, and aspartate could only arise via metabolism of [U-13C]glutamate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Entry of the carbon skeleton of glutamate into the TCA cycle must proceed via 2-oxoglutarate. This conversion can occur as a transamination or an oxidative deamination. After blocking transamination with AOAA, metabolism of glutamate through the TCA cycle was still taking place since lactate labeling was only slightly reduced. Glutamate and glutamine synthesis from 2-oxoglutarate could, however, not be detected under this condition. It therefore appears that while glutamate dehydrogenase is important for glutamate degradation, glutamate biosynthesis occurs mainly as a transamination.

PMID:
8776582
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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