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Am J Kidney Dis. 1996 Aug;28(2):257-61.

Role of volume overload in dialysis-refractory hypertension.

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  • 1Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, NY.

Abstract

It has been observed that while most hypertensive hemodialysis patients normalize their blood pressure with volume removal, there is a population of hemodialysis patients whose hypertension is refractory to volume removal. Our hypothesis is that such patients are still volume overloaded posthemodialysis and are not at a "true" dry weight. This study used atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) assays (as a marker of hydration status) to study this hypothesis. Three groups of patients were studied: normotensive hemodialysis patients (n = 12; group 1), hypertensive hemodialysis patients who consistently normalize their blood pressure with fluid removal (n = 12; group 2), and hypertensive hemodialysis patients whose hypertension is refractory to fluid removal (n = 9; group 3). Plasma ANP levels were measured before and after hemodialysis by radioimmunoassay after extraction on Sep-Pac (Penninsula Laboratories, Belmont). On the day of study the predialysis mean arterial pressures in the three groups were 94.9 +/- 1.9 mm Hg in the normotensive group, 119.5 +/- 2.7 mm Hg in the dialysis-sensitive hypertension group, and 134.4 +/- 3.8 mm Hg in the dialysis-refractory hypertension group (P < 0.05 for comparisons between all groups). Mean arterial pressure did not change predialysis and postdialysis in the normotensive group (94.9 +/- 1.9 mm Hg to 93.1 +/- 1.8 mm Hg, respectively; P = 0.24), decreased in the dialysis-sensitive hypertension group (119.5 +/- 2.7 mm Hg to 100.8 +/- 3.7 mm Hg, respectively; P < 0.0001), and did not change in the dialysis-refractory hypertension group (134.4 +/- 3.8 mm Hg to 133.8 +/- 2.9 mm Hg, respectively; P = 0.77). Predialysis and postdialysis serum ANP levels were, respectively, 235.8 +/- 27.7 pg/mL and 237.8 +/- 36.2 pg/mL (P = 0.92) in the normotensive group, 809.2 +/- 295.5 pg/mL and 161.1 +/- 48.6 pg/mL (P = 0.03) in the dialysis-sensitive hypertension group, and 1,728.3 +/- 309.9 pg/mL and 1,936.1 +/- 359.1 pg/mL (P = 0.22) in the dialysis-refractory hypertension group. Mean predialysis ANP levels were higher in the dialysis-refractory hypertension group than in the dialysis-sensitive hypertension group (1,728.3 +/- 309.9 pg/mL v 809 +/- 359.1 pg/mL; P = 0.048). Mean prehemodialysis ANP in all hypertensive patients (n = 21) was higher (1,203.1 +/- 232.9) than in the normotensive patients (235.8 +/- 27.7) (P = 0.004). In conclusion, our findings are consistent with a hypothesis that inadequate removal of excess volume during hemodialysis plays a major role in dialysis-refractory hypertension.

PMID:
8768921
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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