Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Exp Med. 1996 Aug 1;184(2):407-17.

Induction of cell cycle regulatory proteins in anti-immunoglobulin-stimulated mature B lymphocytes.

Author information

  • 1Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94304-1104, USA.


Progression through the cell cycle is a tightly controlled process that integrates signals generated at the plasma membrane with the proteins that form the cell cycle machinery. The current study chronicles the induction of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk), and cdk inhibitors in low density primary mouse B lymphocytes after anti-immunoglobulin plus interleukin 4 (IgM + IL-4) stimulation. In this system, > 85% of cells remain in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle for an initial 24-h period, followed by entry of up to 50% of the cells into S phase, commencing around 30 h and peaking at 48 h. Extensive time course analyses of these anti-IgM + IL-4-stimulated B cells revealed that the G1-associated D-type cyclins D2 and D3 were induced by 3 h after stimulation, and that cyclins E, A, and B were subsequently induced sequentially, beginning at mid-G1, G1/S transition, and S phase, respectively. The G1-associated cyclin D1 was not expressed at any stage of the anti-Ig + IL-4-induced B cell cycle. cdk2, cdk4, and cdk6 were induced during G1, whereas cell division cycle-2 (cdc2) was induced concomitantly with S phase. Irrespective of their expression, the kinases cdk2 and cdc2 were only active from S phase onwards, suggesting that productive cyclin/kinase complex formation did not occur until that time. Cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p19 were induced by anti-Ig + IL-4, peaking in expression at mid-G1 and S phase, respectively. Stimulation of low density B cells with anti-Ig + IL-4 caused rapid down regulation of the p27 inhibitor, however this protein was reexpressed at 54-96 h after stimulation. In contrast, B cells stimulated with anti-CD40, a stimulus which induces long-term B cell proliferation, permanently down regulated p27. These findings are consistent with the concept that p27 reexpression contributes to the G1 arrest that follows antigen receptor crosslinking. Low density B cells cultured in the viability-enhancing cytokine IL-4 alone also showed induction of D2 and D3 cyclin expression. However, the D2 expression was transient, and the D3 expression was substantially lower than that observed in B cells induced to proliferate by anti-Ig + IL-4. This partial induction of D2 and D3 expression may explain IL-4's ability to promote B cell entry into G1 but not S phase of cell cycle, and furthermore, its ability to truncate G1 progression when B cells are subsequently stimulated with anti-Ig.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk