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J Dairy Sci. 1996 Feb;79(2):329-33.

Procedures used by North Carolina dairies for vitamins A and D fortification of milk.

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  • 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695, USA.


New research findings have documented fortification errors in fortified milk products all across the US milk industry. Also, the consumption of overfortified bovine milk has led the public to question whether vitamin fortification is safe. Therefore, North Carolina dairies were surveyed to determine vitamin fortification procedures used and to determine differences among these procedures. Of the parameters surveyed, the general conditions under which vitamin preparations were stored, the method used to add vitamin preparations to milk, and the point during processing at which vitamin preparations were added to milk were different among dairies. Forty-six percent of the dairies stored vitamin preparations under refrigerated conditions, and 54% stored vitamin preparations at ambient temperatures. The addition of vitamin preparations to bovine milk was accomplished by metered injection at 64% of the dairies and batch addition techniques at 36%. Vitamin preparations were added before fat content standardization and separation by 23% of the dairy processors; 77% added the vitamin preparations after this point. When dairies were asked at what point they added their vitamin preparations to the milk, nine different answers were given. Although other sources of error could also contribute to inconsistent concentrations of vitamin fortification, differences in fortification procedures may have a large impact upon the problem. The diversity of vitamin fortification practices used in North Carolina may be an indication of nationwide trends.

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