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J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 9;271(32):19537-45.

Expression and characterization of inactivating and activating mutations in the human Ca2+o-sensing receptor.

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  • 1Endocrine-Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Nearly 30 mutations have been identified to date in the coding region of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) that are associated with inherited human hypo- and hypercalcemic disorders. To understand the mechanisms by which the mutations alter the function of the receptor may help to discern the structure-function relationships in terms of ligand-binding and G protein coupling. In the present studies, we transiently expressed eight known CaR mutations in HEK293 cells. The effects of the mutations on extracellular calcium- and gadolinium-elicited increases in the cytosolic calcium concentration were then examined. Seven inactivating mutations, which cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism, show a reduced functional activity of the receptor because they may 1) reduce its affinity for agonists; 2) prevent conversion of the receptor from a putatively immature, high mannose form into the fully glycosylated and biologically active form of the CaR, in addition to lowering its affinity for agonists; or 3) fail to couple the receptor to and/or activate its respective G protein(s). Conversely, one activating mutation, which causes a form of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, appears to increase the affinity of the receptor for its agonists.

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