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J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1996 Mar;13(3):634-40.

Imaging localized retinal dysfunction with the multifocal electroretinogram.

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  • 1Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA.


Conventional electroretinographic techniques do not permit efficient mapping of retinal responsiveness for the detection of small dysfunctional areas. This study explores the application of a new technique that makes such mapping possible. It utilizes a multifocal electroretinogram technique based on binary m sequences that simultaneously tests a large number of small retinal areas by multiplexing their responses onto a single signal derived from the human cornea. The focal responses are subsequently extracted for the derivation of high-resolution maps that characterize retinal responsiveness. The required recording times are short enough to make such testing feasible in the clinic. In this study we demonstrate the high sensitivity of the technique by mapping a small area that has been partially bleached by a strobe flash in a normal retina and by mapping dysfunctional areas in three patients with different, well-documented retinal pathologies. The results suggest that the multifocal electroretinogram has the potential to become a valuable clinical tool.

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