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J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1996 May;46(5):430-40.

A mathematical model for predicting trends in carbon monoxide emissions and exposures on urban arterial highways.

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  • 1Stanford University, California, USA.


The roadway is one of the most important microenvironments for human exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). To evaluate long-term changes in pollutant exposure due to in-transit activities, a mathematical model has been developed to predict average daily vehicular emissions on highways. By utilizing measurements that are specific for a given location and year (e.g., traffic counts, fleet composition), this model can predict emissions for a specific roadway during various time periods of interest, allowing examination of long-term trends in human exposure to CO. For an arterial highway in northern California, this model predicts that CO emissions should have declined by 58% between 1980 and 1991, which agrees fairly well with field measurements of human exposure taken along that roadway during those two years. An additional reduction of up to 60% in CO emissions is predicted to occur between 1991 and 2002, due solely to the continued replacement of older cars with newer, cleaner vehicles.

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