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Physiol Rev. 1996 Apr;76(2):371-423.

Molecular diversity of myofibrillar proteins: gene regulation and functional significance.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.

Abstract

Myofibrillar proteins exist as multiple isoforms that derive from multigene (isogene) families. Additional isoforms, including products of tropomyosin, myosin light chain 1 fast, troponin T, titin, and nebulin genes, can be generated from the same gene through alternative splicing or use of alternative promoters. Myofibrillar protein isogenes are differentially expressed in various muscle types and fiber types but can be coexpressed within the same fiber. Isogenes are regulated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms; however, specific regulatory sequences and transcriptional factors have not yet been identified. The pattern of isogene expression varies during muscle development in relation to the different origin of myogenic cells and primary/secondary fiber generations and is affected by neural and hormonal influences. The variable expression of myofibrillar protein isoforms is a major determinant of the contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers. The diversity among isomyosins is related to the differences in the parameters of chemomechanical transduction as ATP hydrolysis rate and shortening velocity. Troponin and tropomyosin isoforms determine the variable sensitivity to calcium, whereas titin isoforms dictate the elastic properties of muscle fibers at rest. Both myosin and troponin isoforms contribute to the differences in the resistance to fatigue of muscle fibers.

PMID:
8618961
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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