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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 Apr 12;45(14):285-9.

Outbreaks of hepatitis B virus infection among hemodialysis patients-- California, Nebraska, and Texas, 1994.


From April through August 1994, outbreaks of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurred in five chronic hemodialysis centers in California, Nebraska, and Texas. This report summarizes investigations by state and local public health officials and CDC, which suggest that transmission of HBV from hemodialysis patients with chronic HBV infection to susceptible patients resulted from failure to identify and isolate HBV-infected patients during hemodialysis; sharing of staff, equipment, and supplies among patients; and failure to vaccinate susceptible patients against hepatitis B.

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