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J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Jun;14(3):219-28.

Liver and biliary tract changes and injury associated with total parenteral nutrition: pathogenesis and prevention.

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  • 1Edward Hines Jr. Hospital, Department of Veterans Affairs, Hines, Illinois 60141, USA.


Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), now widely used, is successful in preventing and reversing malnutrition in individuals with various diseases and conditions. However, hepatic and biliary complications of TPN are encountered in both adult and pediatric patients. Certain complications, such as sepsis and TPN-associated cholestasis, occur more frequently in very young infants. Continuing problems commonly seen in adults are steatosis and steatonecrosis. Reasons for the development of these complications are multifactorial. Etiologies of hepatic complications, especially the role of deficiency/excess of nutrients in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary disorders, are summarized. Complications caused by the duration of TPN are discussed with emphasis on prevention and management. Evidence now suggests that prompt enteral feeding, even in minimal amounts, may prevent many of the metabolic complications associated with TPN. TPN should be used only in amounts meeting needs and for a duration essential to survival.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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