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J Voice. 1995 Dec;9(4):403-12.

Fundamental frequency and tracheal pressure during three types of vocalizations elicited from anesthetized dogs.

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  • 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1012, USA.


Electrical stimulation of the midbrain was used to elicit a variety of vocalizations from six anesthetized dogs. This study was conducted to investigate the ranges of and relationships between fundamental frequency of the vocalizations (F0) and tracheal pressure (Pt) produced during the vocalizations. The vocalizations were described according to type (growl, howl, and whine); F0 and Pt, as well as patterns of laryngeal muscle activity, were examined for each vocalization type. Natural-sounding growl and howl vocalizations were elicited from five dogs; three dogs also produced whines. With few exceptions, F0 was categorically different for the three vocalization types (low for growls, average for howls, very high for whines). Pt values overlapped for the three vocalization types, although, on average, howls were produced with greater Pt than growls. Patterns and degrees of laryngeal muscle activity varied across and within vocalization types, but general findings were consistent with the presumed function of most of the muscles. Laryngeal muscle activity may help explain some of the variability in the acoustic and aerodynamic data.

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