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Development. 1996 Jan;122(1):253-63.

A fate map of the vegetal plate of the sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) mesenchyme blastula.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Previous lineage tracing experiments have shown that the vegetal blastomers of cleavage stage embryos give rise to all the mesoderm and endoderm of the sea urchin larva. In these studies, vegetal blastomers were labeled no later than the sixth cleavage division (60-64 cell stage). In an earlier study we showed that single cells in the vegetal plate of the blastula stage Lytechinus variegatus embryo could be labeled in situ with the fluorescent, lipophilic dye, DiI(C18), and that cells labeled in the central region of the vegetal plate of the mesenchyme blastula primarily gave rise to homogeneous clones consisting of a single secondary mesenchyme cell (SMC) type (Ruffins and Ettensohn (1993) Dev. Biol. 160, 285-288). Our clonal labeling showed that a detailed fate map could be generated using the DiI(C18) labeling technique. Such a fate map could provide information about the spatial relationships between the precursors of specific mesodermal and endodermal cell types and information concerning the movements of these cells during gastrulation and later embryogenesis. We have used this method to construct the first detailed fate map of the vegetal plate of the sea urchin embryo. Ours is a latitudinal map; mapping from the plate center, where the mesodermal precursors reside, through the region which contains the endodermal precursors and across the ectodermal boundary. We found that the precursors of certain SMC types are segregated in the mesenchyme blastula stage vegetal plate and that prospective germ layers reside within specific boundaries. To determine whether the vegetal plate is radially symmetrical with respect to mesodermal cell fates, single blastomeres of four cell stage embryos were injected with lysyl-rhodamine dextran (LRD). The resulting ectodermal labeling patterns were classified and correlated with the SMC types labeled. This analysis indicates that the dorsal and ventral blastomers do not contribute equally to SMC derivatives in L. variegatus.

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