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J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 5;271(1):111-9.

Induced release of cell surface protein kinase yields CK1- and CK2-like enzymes in tandem.

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  • 1Department of Pathochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.


Several types of cell exhibit cell surface protein kinase (ecto-PK) activities with Ser/Thr-specificity. Ecto-PK sharing certain characteristics of protein kinase CK2 can be detached from intact cells by interaction with exogenous substrates (Kübler, D., Pyerin, W., Burow, E., and Kinzel, V. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 4021-4025). However, a detailed molecular analysis of this ecto-PK was hampered by the vanishingly small amounts of labile enzyme protein obtained by substrate-inducible enzyme release. We now describe the stabilization and enrichment of released ecto-PK by precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by affinity chromatography on heparin-agarose. Ecto-PK is shown to consist of two separate forms released in tandem, ecto-PK I and ecto-PK II. Comparison with cell homogenates as well as cell surface biotinylation experiments excluded contamination with intracellular PK. Purified ecto-PK I and ecto-PK II exhibit respectively selective phosphorylation of CK1- and CK2-specific peptide substrates, a complementary sensitivity to inhibitory agents and a differential use of the cosubstrates ATP and GTP. Ecto-PK I consists of a 40-kDa moiety; the ecto-PK II is an ensemble of three components of 43- and 40-kDa (catalytic subunits) and a noncatalytic 28-kDa subunit. In addition, components of the ecto-PK II react with CK2-specific antibodies. Further, comparative peptide mapping and the results of mass spectrometry in combination with assignment of amino acid sequences confirmed that ecto-PK II is closely related if not identical to the protein kinase CK2. Assays with intact cells that result in the phosphorylation of a variety of endogenous membrane proteins showed that both ecto-PKs participate, and further, certain ecto-PK substrates become preferentially labeled by one or another of the enzymes, whereas others are phosphorylated by both ecto-PK activities.

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