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J Neurol Sci. 1993 May;116(1):73-81.

Notexin-induced muscle injury in the dog.

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  • 1Department of Companion Animal and Special Species Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606.


Notexin, a myotoxic phospholipase, was used to induce focal necrosis in the sartorius muscles of normal mixed-breed adult dogs and in 12-week-old beagles. Notexin injury caused pathologic changes similar to those of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and its canine homologue, golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD). All three conditions are characterized by increased serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, sarcolemmal defects, delta lesions, hyaline degeneration of myofibers, calcium-positive myofibers, and minimal effects on neurovascular structures. Four and 24 h after exposure to notexin, serum CK levels were elevated, and many myofibers were necrotic. In addition, by 24 h the necrotic areas were heavily invaded by mononuclear cells, and calcium-positive myofibers were prominent. Capillaries appeared intact even in areas of marked myonecrosis. Massive cellular infiltrate and myotube formation was evident at 3 days post injury. By 7 days, most affected fascicles were occupied by small immature myofibers. Regeneration was largely complete at 21 days. Our results suggest that notexin-induced muscle injury in dogs will be useful in the evaluation of potential therapies for DMD such as myoblast transplantation.

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