Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Science. 1993 Jun 11;260(5114):1629-32.

Divergence in proteins, mitochondrial DNA, and reproductive compatibility across the isthmus of Panama.

Author information

  • 1Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama.


It is widely believed that gene flow connected many shallow water populations of the Caribbean and eastern Pacific until the Panama seaway closed 3.0 to 3.5 million years ago. Measurements of biochemical and reproductive divergence for seven closely related, transisthmian pairs of snapping shrimps (Alpheus) indicate, however, that isolation was staggered rather than simultaneous. The four least divergent pairs provide the best estimate for rates of molecular divergence and speciation. Ecological, genetic, and geological data suggest that gene flow was disrupted for the remaining three pairs by environmental change several million years before the land barrier was complete.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk