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Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 May;57(5 Suppl):772S-777S; discussion 777S-778S.

Dietary fat and the control of energy intake: evaluating the effects of fat on meal size and postmeal satiety.

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  • 1Psychology Department, University of Leeds, UK.


Three separate experiments in lean subjects confirmed that a 1.52-MJ (362-kcal) carbohydrate supplement at breakfast suppressed appetite 90 min later but had no effect on a test meal given after 270 min. A 1.52-MJ (362-kcal) fat supplement produced no detectable action on measures of appetite at any time point. Therefore, fat and carbohydrate do not have identical effects on the appetite profile. In a further study in obese subjects, a novel experimental design was used to assess the satiating efficiency and compensatory response of fat. Eating from a range of either high-fat or high-carbohydrate foods, obese subjects voluntarily consumed twice as much energy from the fat items, thereby indicating a weak action of fat on satiation. In turn, this large intake of fat exerted a disproportionately weak effect on satiety. These studies suggest that the appetite-control system may have only weak inhibitory mechanisms to prevent the passive overconsumption of dietary fat. The results indicate how this action could induce a positive energy balance and lead to a gradual upward drift in body mass index.

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