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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Feb;37(2):332-8.

Differential antiherpesvirus and antiretrovirus effects of the (S) and (R) enantiomers of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: potent and selective in vitro and in vivo antiretrovirus activities of (R)-9-(2-phosphonomethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine.

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  • 1Rega Institute of Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.


The (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of acyclic purine nucleoside phosphonate analogs (i.e., 3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl [HPMP] derivatives, 3-fluoro-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl [FPMP] derivatives, and 2-phosphonomethoxypropyl [PMP] derivatives of adenine [A], 2-aminopurine, 2,6-diaminopurine [DAP], and guanine [G]) have been synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity. As a rule, the HPMP derivatives proved effective against DNA viruses but not RNA viruses or retroviruses. In particular, (S)-HPMPA, (S)-HPMPDAP, and (R)- and (S)-HPMPG were exquisitely inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (50% effective concentrations, 0.63, 0.22, 0.10, and 0.66 microM, respectively). The FPMP and PMP derivatives showed marked inhibitory activities against retroviruses but not DNA viruses. The (S)-enantiomer of FPMPA and the (R)-enantiomer of PMPA were approximately 30- to 100-fold more effective against human immunodeficiency virus and Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) than their enantiomeric counterparts. In contrast, both (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of the DAP and G derivatives proved equally effective against retroviruses, except for (R)-PMPDAP, which was 15- to 40-fold more inhibitory than (S)-PMPDAP. (R)-PMPDAP emerged as the most potent and selective inhibitor of MSV-induced transformation of murine C3H/3T3 cells and human immunodeficiency virus-induced cytopathicity in MT-4 and CEM cells (50% effective concentration, approximately 0.1 to 0.6 microM). When administered intraperitoneally at a single dose as low as 2 mg/kg, (R)-PMPDAP efficiently decreased MSV-induced tumor formation in newborn NMRI mice and significantly increased the survival time of MSV-infected mice. In addition, upon oral administration to MSV-infected mice, (R)-PMPDAP showed marked antiretroviral efficacy.

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