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Arch Ophthalmol. 1993 Mar;111(3):324-6.

Informed consent and medical ethics.

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  • 1Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21205.


Informed consent is based on a shared decision between physician and patient, with the physician understanding the relevant values of the patient and the patient understanding the nature of the disease and intervention, including risks and benefits. Informed consent has developed rapidly since it was introduced in the 1950s, reflecting recent changes in the practice of medicine that respect the increase of patient autonomy. The purpose of the written consent form is to document that a process of informed consent has taken place. It is generally agreed that all surgical as well as research procedures require written consent. For certain nonsurgical procedures, the decision regarding obtaining written consent will consider both the risk involved for the patient and the general community standard. Informed consent serves as an important symbol of a physician-patient relationship that adheres to the valued principles of medical ethics.

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