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Ergonomics. 1993 Jan-Mar;36(1-3):191-7.

Psychometric equivalence of an improved Basic Language Morningness (BALM) scale using industrial population within comparisons.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802.


An existing 13-item composite circadian rhythm 'morningness' scale was simplified into a '(BA)sic (L)anguage (M)orningness' (BALM) scale at a seventh grade (12-13 years) reading level. It was given to 150 each of continuously rotating shifworkers and fixed-schedule dayworkers in an industrial manufacturing plant. Multiple factor analyses confirmed three prior identified factors, morningness/effort, morning alert, and evening. Morningness scores for dayworkers were higher than for shiftworkers (p < 0.001). The BALM scale revision is suitable for most worker levels. A suggested psychometrically 'purer' 9-item morningness scale omits the inconsistent evening factor scale items.

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