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J Urol. 1993 Mar;149(3):648-52.

Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH).

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  • 1Department of Urology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown 26506-9251.


Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a potent immunogen that is being evaluated as an immunotherapeutic alternative to BCG in the treatment of bladder cancer. In the mouse bladder tumor model (MBT2) intralesional KLH significantly reduced tumor incidence, growth rate, and mortality and exhibited antitumor activity similar to that achievable with BCG. Endotoxin contamination of KLH was not responsible for the antitumor activity, although endotoxin alone was shown to have anti-tumor activity in this animal model. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin is both safe and effective in the MBT2 model, and is an immunomodulator to consider for clinical trials.

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