Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jan;13(1):9-17.

An opportunistic promoter sharing regulatory sequences with either a muscle-specific or a ubiquitous promoter in the human aldolase A gene.

Author information

  • 1Unité de Recherches en Génétique et Pathologie Moléculaires, INSERM U129, ICGM, Paris, France.


The human aldolase A gene is transcribed from three different promoters, pN, pM, and pH, all of which are clustered within a small 1.6-kbp DNA domain. pM, which is highly specific to adult skeletal muscle, lies in between pN and pH, which are ubiquitous but particularly active in heart and skeletal muscle. A ubiquitous enhancer, located just upstream of pH start sites, is necessary for the activity of both pH and pN in transient transfection assays. Using transgenic mice, we studied the sequence controlling the muscle-specific promoter pM and the relations between the three promoters and the ubiquitous enhancer. A 4.3-kbp fragment containing the three promoters and the ubiquitous enhancer showed an expression pattern consistent with that known in humans. In addition, while pH was active in both fast and slow skeletal muscles, pM was active only in fast muscle. pM activity was unaltered by the deletion of a 1.8-kbp region containing the ubiquitous enhancer and the pH promoter, whereas pN remained active only in fast skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that in fast skeletal muscle, a tissue-specific enhancer was acting on both pN and pM, whereas in other tissues, the ubiquitous enhancer was necessary for pN activity. Finally, a 2.6-kbp region containing the ubiquitous enhancer and only the pH promoter was sufficient to bring about high-level expression of pH in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Thus, while pH and pM function independently of each other, pN, remarkably, shares regulatory elements with each of them, depending on the tissue. Importantly, expression of the transgenes was independent of the integration site, as originally described for transgenes containing the beta-globin locus control region.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk