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Mol Microbiol. 1993 Jul;9(1):9-15.

Adaptation of Escherichia coli to redox environments by gene expression.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.


Escherichia coli is adroit in exploiting environmental energy sources to its greatest profit. A key strategy is to channel electron transport from donor to a terminal acceptor(s) so that the voltage drop is maximal. At the level of transcription, the goal is achieved by the interaction of three global regulatory systems, Fnr, NarL/NarX and ArcB/ArcA. In addition, the regulator FhlA is involved in a cascade-controlled pathway for the formate branch of the pyruvate fermentation pathway.

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