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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Jun 14;683:151-63.

Dietary lipids influence insulin action.

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  • 1Nutrition and Metabolism Research Group, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Abstract

Insulin binding and insulin responsiveness are altered by dietary fat-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of the adipocyte plasma membrane. Feeding a high P/S diet increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content of major membrane phospholipids of adipocyte plasma membrane in normal and diabetic animals, increased membrane linoleic acid content, and prevented a decrease in arachidonic acid level in diabetic animals. The high P/S diet increased insulin binding in control animals. Animals fed the high P/S diet had significantly higher rates of insulin-stimulated glucose transport and lipogenesis than did animals fed the low P/S diet. Feeding a high P/S diet significantly increased the amount of glucose transported when expressed as a function of the specific amount of insulin bound. To determine if dietary fat-induced alterations in the fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle lipid alter insulin-dependent and basal muscle metabolism, contralateral epitrochlearis and extensor digitorum longus muscles were isolated and incubated in vitro. High levels of dietary omega-3 fatty acids reduced PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis in extensor digitorum longus and epitrochlearis muscle. Insulin increased glucose and amino acid transport; the increase in glucose transport by insulin was significantly greater after consumption of the high omega-3 fatty acid diet. Rats fed high levels of omega-3 fatty acids showed reduced net protein degradation in the presence and absence of insulin due to decreased rates of protein degradation and synthesis. These experiments indicate that high levels of dietary omega-3 fatty acids alter muscle membrane composition, glucose transport, and metabolism of muscle protein. To determine if dietary fatty acids alter the onset of diabetes and insulin binding to liver nuclei in spontaneously diabetic rats, weanling rats were fed chow or semipurified diets containing 20% (w/w) fat of either high or low P/S ratio. Feeding a high P/S diet increased insulin binding to liver nuclei of control and diabetic animals. Although diet did not alter the onset of diabetes, insulin binding to liver nuclei is higher in animals at the onset of diabetes than in highly diabetic animals. Eight-week-old female C57 B 6J lean and ob/ob mice were fed semipurified diets containing 20% (w/w) fat of either high or low P/S ratio to investigate the effect of diet on specific binding of insulin to liver nuclei. Insulin binding was highest in nuclei from lean mice fed a high P/S diet. Specific binding of insulin to nuclei from obese mice was also increased by the high P/S diet, but to a lesser extent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

PMID:
8352437
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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