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Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Aug;119(8):837-41.

Embolization for the treatment of posterior epistaxis. An analysis of 31 cases.

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  • 1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Central Hospital of Oulu, University of Oulu, Finland.


Thirty-one patients with posterior epistaxis refractory to nasal packing alone or in combination with surgical ligation (n = 8) underwent diagnostic angiography and therapeutic embolization of the internal maxillary artery. Embolization resulted in the cure of epistaxis in 22 cases (71.0%). Of the nine failures (29.0%), seven underwent successful surgical clipping of the ethmoid arteries, and two were treated conservatively and died of their primary hematologic disease within 33 days. Late rebleeding occurred in two patients: one underwent re-embolization and the other was treated surgically. No severe or permanent complications occurred. The results indicate that embolization is a feasible alternative to surgical intervention for patients with posterior epistaxis, and we recommend it as the treatment of choice in cases with high surgical risk or failure of prior arterial ligation.

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