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J Rheumatol. 1993 May;20(5):866-9.

A brief measure of helplessness in rheumatic disease: the helplessness subscale of the Rheumatology Attitudes Index.

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  • 1Thurston Arthritis Research Center, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.


A short 5-item unifactorial form of the Rheumatology Attitudes Index was demonstrated to constitute an acceptable scale of helplessness for research or for clinical screening purposes. These items are the exact counterparts of the Arthritis Helplessness Index items that were identified as constituting a helplessness factor. These brief measures appear to be superior to their longer counterparts because they are conceptually less ambiguous and more convenient.

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