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Thromb Haemost. 1993 May 3;69(5):460-5.

Familial high plasminogen activator inhibitor with hypofibrinolysis, a new pathophysiologic cause of osteonecrosis?

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  • 1Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229.


In a 29 year old white male with osteonecrosis of both hips and a shoulder, and in his family, we measured basal and stimulated (10 min cuff venous occlusion at 100 mgHg) fibrinolytic activity to determine whether low fibrinolytic activity might be heritable and etiologically associated with osteonecrosis. The proband's basal tPA-Fx was low, 0.08 IU/ml (normal 0.11-1.94), tPA-Ag was normal (11.6 ng/ml), plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI-Fx) was very high, 119 U/ml (normal 3.5-27), as was his plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen (PAI-Ag), 202 ng/ml (normal 3.2-37.1). The proband's basal PAI-Fx (119) and PAI-Ag (202) were respectively 6 and 13 standard deviations greater than the mean PAI-Fx (17 +/- 15 U/ml) and the mean PAI-Ag (25 +/- 13 ng/ml) in 172 concomitantly studied hyperlipidemic men. Alpha-2 antiplasmin, fibrinogen, plasminogen and Lp(a) were normal. Despite lowering TG to 301 mg/dl, basal tPA-Fx remained low, 0.05; PAI-Fx and PAI-Ag remained very high (109 and 191). Following venous occlusion, stimulated tPA-Fx remained very low, 0.1 (normal 2.3-11.3), but tPA-Ag rose normally to 17 (normal 8.4-31.4); stimulated PAI-Fx and PAI-Ag were very high, 134 and 223, (normal PAI-Fx 3.6-24, PAI-Ag 12-96). Stimulated D-dimer was < the 10th percentile, 0.084 micrograms/ml. With such high PAI-Fx available to bind tPA, occlusion-stimulated tPA-Fx could not rise, and fibrinolysis could not be initiated. Neither diseases nor drugs could explain the high PAI-Fx and PAI-Ag, low tPA-Fx; or osteonecrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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