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Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993 Dec;54(12):711-22.

The effect of respirator dead space and lung retention on exposure estimates.

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  • 1UCLA School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences 90024.


This paper develops, tests, and applies equations that predict the magnitude of the effect of lung retention and respirator dead space on average inhalation concentration and other related quantities. The equations were validated by numerical simulation and experimental measurement with a respirator on a mannequin connected to a breathing machine. Experimental data are presented verifying the applicability of the equations. The authors present applications of the equations and procedures to various types of respirator performance measurements and to a predictive respirator performance model. Graphs are presented giving correction factors. In all cases the correction factors are less than 2. Under typical conditions of workplace protection factor measurement with half-mask respirators, average inhalation concentration will be 105% to 125% of full-cycle average concentration.

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