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Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Sep;58(3):376-84.

Estimated vitamin intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

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  • 1Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California at Berkeley 94720.

Abstract

Vitamin intakes of 255 toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) were estimated from food consumption recorded during 1 y at sites in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Mean intakes were compared with requirements standards by using a probability approach to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes. There were predicted inadequacies for vitamin A (32%) and riboflavin (20%) in Egypt, vitamins A (68%) and C (63%) and riboflavin (52%) in Mexico, and vitamin B-12 (44%) in Kenya. Vitamin E was inadequate in all diets, but in relation to polyunsaturated fatty acids only the intake in Mexico was low. No diet provided the recommended amount of vitamin D, but its dietary requirement is uncertain. Correlations among nutrient intakes suggest factors that may contribute to reported associations of consumption of animal products with improved growth or development among these children: provision of vitamin B-12 and available minerals, displacement of fiber and phytate-rich energy sources, and increased energy density.

PIP:

Data on 255 children, 18-30 months old, in Kalama village on the Nile delta in Egypt, the Embu district in Kenya, and the Solis Valley in Mexico were analyzed over a 1-year period to study the relationships of energy and animal protein intakes with vitamins, minerals, and two factors that affect bioavailability, dietary fiber and phytate. The researchers used the probability approach to determine the prevalence of inadequate intakes. Estimated intake inadequacies were 32% for vitamin A and 20% for riboflavin in Egypt; 68% for vitamin A, 63% for vitamin C, and 52% for riboflavin in Mexico, and 44% for vitamin B12 in Kenya. All the diets were deficient in vitamin E. Yet, when researchers compared vitamin E in relation to polyunsaturated fatty acids, the vitamin E intake was low only in Mexico. None of the diets had the recommended amount of vitamin D, but actual dietary requirements were unknown. Further, the researchers had no information on solar exposure. Provision of vitamin B12 and available minerals, displacement of fiber and phytate-rich energy sources, and increased energy density were associated with improved growth or development among children ingesting animal products (p 0.05). Intakes of folacin, niacin, and thiamin were negatively related to animal protein intake (p 0.05).

PMID:
8237849
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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