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J Am Diet Assoc. 1994 Jun;94(6):612-5.

Dietary fat, sugar, and fiber predict body fat content.

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  • 1Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study was conducted to determine the relationships among the specific components of dietary fat and carbohydrate and body fatness in lean and obese adults.

DESIGN:

Body composition determination was performed on each subject by hydrostatic weighing at residual volume. Subsequently, the individual components of dietary fat and carbohydrate were examined relative to body fatness using a 3-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire.

SUBJECTS:

Subjects were 23 lean (11.1 +/- 2.9% body fat) men, 23 obese (29.2 +/- 3.8% body fat) men, 17 lean (16.7 +/- 3.3% body fat) women, and 15 obese (42.7 +/- 3.9% body fat) women who volunteered for free diet and body composition analyses. Inclusion criteria were 15% body fat for lean men, 25% for obese men, 20% for lean women, and 35% for obese women.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED:

Group comparisons for dietary variables were made with a multivariate analysis of variance.

RESULTS:

No differences were found between lean and obese subjects for energy intake or total sugar intake, but obese subjects derived a greater portion of their energy from fat (33.1 +/- 2.6% and 36.3 +/- 2.3% for obese men and women, respectively, vs 29.1 +/- 1.3% and 29.6 +/- 2.0%, lean men and women, respectively). Percent of fat intake for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats was not different among groups. Obese subjects derived a greater percentage of their sugar intake from added sugars than lean subjects (38.0 +/- 3.5% vs 25.2 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for men; 47.9 +/- 8.0% vs 31.4 +/- 3.4%, respectively, for women). Dietary fiber was lower for obese men (20.9 +/- 1.8 g) and women (15.7 +/- 1.1 g) than for lean men (27.0 +/- 1.8 g) and women (22.7 +/- 2.1 g).

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:

Obesity is maintained primarily by a diet that is high in fat and added sugar and relatively low in fiber. Alterations in diet composition rather than energy intake may be a weight control strategy for overweight adults.

Comment in

PMID:
8195547
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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