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Soc Biol. 1993 Spring-Summer;40(1-2):147-51.

Specific neuro-cognitive impairments associated with Turner (45,X) and Klinefelter (47,XXY) syndromes: a review.

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  • 1Psychohormonal Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University and Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.


In Turner syndrome, there is a high incidence of neuro-cognitive impairment specific to the mental processing and sequencing of rotational transformations of shapes in the spatial dimensions of left-right, up-down, and back-front. In Klinefelter syndrome, the corresponding neuro-cognitive impairment is specific to the mental processing of sequence and synchrony in the temporal dimension, including the temporal dimension of language.

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