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Appetite. 1993 Dec;21(3):273-86.

The effects of preloads varying in physical state and fat content on satiety and energy intake.

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  • 1Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.


This study investigated the effect of the physical state and fat content of a preload on feelings of hunger and satiety and subsequent energy intake. Thirty-three normal-weight female subjects each received nine different 550-ml preloads which were served as breakfast. The preloads differed in physical state and fat level. There were three types of physical state (liquid, solid with locust bean gum, and solid with gelatin) combined with three energy levels (0.42, 1.67, and 3.35 MJ). The energy differences were due only to differences in fat content. Subjects were not allowed to eat or drink (except water) for 3.5 h after preload consumption. In this period they rated their feelings of appetite. Subjects recorded their voluntary food intake for the remainder of the study day and the day after the study day. There were no effects of the different amounts of fat or the three different physical states on energy intake during the remainder of the day or the day after. With respect to the appetite ratings, however, it appeared that the solid preloads were more satiating than the liquid preloads and the solid preloads were more satiating with fibre (locust bean gum) than without fibre (gelatin). The high-fat preloads were more satiating than the low-fat preloads.

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