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Magn Reson Med. 1993 Dec;30(6):672-9.

Estimation of metabolite concentrations from localized in vivo proton NMR spectra.

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  • 1Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie, Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany.


The LCModel method analyzes an in vivo spectrum as a Linear Combination of Model spectra of metabolite solutions in vitro. By using complete model spectra, rather than just individual resonances, maximum information and uniqueness are incorporated into the analysis. A constrained regularization method accounts for differences in phase, baseline, and lineshapes between the in vitro and in vivo spectra, and estimates the metabolite concentrations and their uncertainties. LCModel is fully automatic in that the only input is the time-domain in vivo data. The lack of subjective interaction should help the exchange and comparison of results. More than 3000 human brain STEAM spectra from patients and healthy volunteers have been analyzed with LCModel. N-acetylaspartate, cholines, creatines, myo-inositol, and glutamate can be reliably determined, and abnormal levels of these or elevated levels of lactate, alanine, scyllo-inositol, glutamine, or glucose clearly indicate numerous pathologies. A computer program will be available.

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