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Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1993 Dec;14(4):289-95.

Restraint asphyxiation in excited delirium.

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  • 1Ventura County Medical Examiner's Office, California 93003.


Eleven cases of sudden death of men restrained in a prone position by police officers are reported. Nine of the men were hogtied, one was tied to a hospital gurney, and one was manually held prone. All subjects were in an excited delirious state when restrained. Three were psychotic, whereas the others were acutely delirious from drugs (six from cocaine, one from methamphetamine, and one from LSD). Two were shocked with stun guns shortly before death. The literature is reviewed and mechanisms of death are discussed.

Comment in

  • Custody restraint asphyxia. [Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2000]
  • Restraint asphyxiation. [Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1994]
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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