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Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Mar;59(3):600-11.

The Copenhagen Cohort Study on Infant Nutrition and Growth: breast-milk intake, human milk macronutrient content, and influencing factors.

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  • 1Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.


In 91 healthy term infants breast-milk intake was measured at 2, 4, and 9 mo by test weighing and human milk macronutrient content by infrared analysis every 2-4 wk. In infants exclusively breast-fed, mean milk intake was 781 and 855 mL/24 h at 2 and 4 mo, respectively, and correlated positively with the current weight of the infant and negatively with the amount of formula supplement given at the maternity ward. Median daily energy intake was considerably below current recommendations (423 and 381 kJ/kg body wt at 2 and 4 mo, respectively). Protein concentration in the milk was approximately 8% higher in primipara. Median daily protein intake was 1.3 and 1.0 g/kg body wt at 2 and 4 mo, respectively. Median fat concentration was 39.2 g/L and was positively associated with pregnancy weight gain. This supports the hypothesis that maternal fat stores laid down during pregnancy are easier to mobilize during lactation than are other fat stores and, if low, may limit milk fat when exhausted.

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