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Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1993 Sep;16(3):589-610.

Neuroleptic-induced acute extrapyramidal syndromes and tardive dyskinesia.

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  • 1Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, Oregon.


Neuroleptic drug-induced acute extrapyramidal symptoms and later-onset tardive dyskinesia are major limitations to these valuable drugs. Each of these disorders can be described by special risk factors that include patient characteristics, drug factors, and temporal considerations. The limitations that derive from these motor side effects have been one of the major reasons propelling the search for neuroleptic drugs that are free of these side effects. Strategies for managing the acute and late-onset extrapyramidal syndromes are presented. Significantly more research is needed, however, on all these disorders before a unified and cohesive explanation can account for these seemingly disparate syndromes. New medications, which effectively treat schizophrenia and are free of acute extrapyramidal syndromes and tardive dyskinesia, will be a giant step forward in patient care and our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling both mental function and motor control.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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