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J Natl Cancer Inst. 1975 Jul;55(1):101-6.

Effects in rats of sodium chloride on experimental gastric cancers induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide.


The effects were studied of NaCl on the production of gastric carcinomas by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) in male Wistar rats. Nine groups of rats were treated as follows: Group 1 was given 50 mg MNNG/liter and 6 g NaCl solution/liter to drink and was fed a stock diet supplemented with 10% NaCl. Group 2 received 1 ml saturated NaCl once a week and 50 mg MNNG/liter to drink. Group 3 was treated with MNNG alone. Group 4 was given a solution of 1 mg NQO once a week and fed a stock diet supplemented with 10% NaCl. Group 5 received a solution of 1 mg NQO saturated with NaCl. Group 6 was given NQO alone. Groups 7 and 8 were given NaCl alone. Group 9 was untreated. Adenocarcinomas developed in the glandular stomach in group 2 at a significantly higher incidence than in group 3. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the glandular stomach were detected in only groups 1 and 2. One poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma metastasized to the lymph nodes. A high incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the forestomach was found in groups 4 and 5. No malignant tumors were seen in groups 6-9. NaCl given alone had no apparent carcinogenicity in rats but, when administered with MNNG or NQO, it enhanced the carcinogenic effects of MNNG and NQO in the stomach.

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