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J Learn Disabil. 1994 Jun-Jul;27(6):383-92.

A comparison of neuropsychological test profiles of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and/or learning disorder.

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  • 1Children's Castle Hospital, Helsinki University, Finland.


The study compared 8-year-old children with pure attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 21), specific learning disorder (LD) (n = 12), and both (ADHD + LD) (n = 27) on a comprehensive set of neuropsychological measures. The tests were mainly derived from a new neuropsychological instrument, the Neuropsychological Assessment of Children. The children with ADHD were specifically impaired in the control and inhibition of impulses; the children with LD were impaired in phonological awareness, verbal memory span, and storytelling, as well as in verbal IQ. Children with both showed all of these deficiencies; they also had more pervasive attention problems and more visual-motor problems than the two other groups. All groups exhibited impaired performance in tasks of visual-motor precision and name retrieval. The latter finding may involve two different mechanisms, one related to linguistic impairment and possibly contributing to reading and spelling problems, and the other related to attentional problems.

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