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Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Mar;45(3):417-27.

Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human somatostatin receptor (somatostatin receptor type 5) with preferential affinity for somatostatin-28.

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  • 1Fraser Laboratories, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

Using a combination of polymerase chain reaction and genomic library screening we have cloned a human gene for a subtype of the somatostatin (SST) receptor (SSTR) termed human SSTR5 (hSSTR5), which is located on chromosome 16. The predicted amino acid sequence of hSSTR5 displays 75% sequence identity with a recently identified rat SSTR [Mol. Pharmacol. 42:939-946 (1992)], suggesting that it is the human homologue of this receptor. hSSTR5 consists of a 363-residue polypeptide exhibiting a putative seven-transmembrane domain topology typical of G protein-coupled receptors. The receptor displays considerable sequence identity to hSSTR1 (42%), hSSTR2 (48%), hSSTR3 (47%), and hSSTR4 (46%). Membranes prepared from COS-7 cells transiently expressing the hSSTR5 gene bound 125I-Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25-SST-28 (125I-LTT-SST-28) with high affinity and in a saturable manner. SST-14, SST-28, and various synthetic SST peptide agonists produced dose-dependent inhibition of radioligand binding with the following rank order of potency: LTT-SST-28 > SST-28 > D-Trp8-SST-14 > SST-14 approximately RC-160 approximately BIM 23014 > MK-678 > SMS 201-995. hSSTR5 bound SST-28 with a 12.6-fold greater affinity (Ki = 0.19 nM), compared with SST-14 (Ki = 2.24 nM), indicating that the receptor is SST-28 selective. Addition of GTP, guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate, Na+ ions, or pertusis toxin greatly reduced 125I-LTT-SST-28 binding, thereby indicating that hSSTR5 is coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. Both SST-14 and SST-28 displayed dose-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, consistent with functional coupling of the receptor to adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Northern blot analysis of SSTR5 mRNA revealed a 2.4-kilobase transcript in normal rat pituitary and GH3 rat pituitary tumor cells and a 4.0-kilobase transcript in normal human pituitary. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of the hSSTR gene in fetal human pituitary and hypothalamus but not in human cerebral cortex. In situ hybridization of the rat pituitary showed that SSTR5 mRNA is selectively localized in the anterior lobe. SSTR5 mRNA was not expressed in four human pituitary tumors (somatotroph adenoma, prolactinoma, and chromophobe adenomas) or in a human insulinoma. Although hSSTR5 displays approximately 75% sequence identity with rat SSTR5, the two receptors display significantly different pharmacological profiles, especially with respect to their binding affinities for the SST analogue SMS 201-995.

PMID:
7908405
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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